Foundation for Integrated Medicine - Intestinal Parasites

DRUG-SUPPLEMENT INTERACTIONS:

THE GOOD, THE BAD AND THE UNDETERMINED

LEO GALLAND M.D., F.A.C.P.

FOUNDATION FOR INTEGRATED MEDICINE

NEW YORK, NEW YORK

 

INTRODUCTION

            Concomitant use of dietary supplements with medication may produce adverse or beneficial effects, which are determined by the specific substances and circumstances of use. In conducting a detailed analysis of the available literature during 2004[1], the author made the following general observations, the details of which will form the basis for this chapter:

(1)   The number of documented adverse interactions is matched by the number of documented beneficial interactions.

(2)   Most adverse interactions are pharmacokinetic, i.e., the supplement alters the solubility, absorption, excretion, protein binding or metabolism of the drug, resulting in subtherapeutic or toxic plasma concentrations.

(3)   Many potential interactions mentioned in reviews or compendia fail to be confirmed when tested in controlled human studies.

(4)   Beneficial interactions between drugs and supplements are of 3 major types:

(a)    Drugs may deplete or inhibit the actions of individual nutrients or metabolic intermediates like coenzyme Q10; dietary supplements may compensate.

(b)   Specific supplements may decrease toxicity or side effects of individual drugs or drug classes, through diverse mechanisms.

(c)    A supplement may actually enhance the pharmacodynamic action of a drug.

The goal of this chapter is twofold: to help physicians guide their patients in avoiding hazardous drug-supplement interactions and to help them identify supplements that may improve the performance of medications they are prescribing. Because of the diversity of substances and interactions, the information will be presented according to categories of clinical use specific to the practice of internal medicine. Only the results of clinical trials, controlled human experiments and significant case reports will be included. Space limitation precludes discussion of medications primarily used in psychiatry, neurology, and gynecology.

1. ANALGESIC/ANTI-INFLAMMATORY

a. Aspirin and NSAIDs

Three areas of potential interaction between aspirin or NSAIDs and dietary supplements have been reported: gastrointestinal toxicity, antiplatelet effects and relief of pain and inflammation. Table 1 lists six supplements that may diminish GI side effects of aspirin or NSAIDs, based upon controlled experiments with healthy humans. The protective effect of vitamin C is noteworthy because regular use of aspirin depletes intragastric vitamin C and suppresses gastric blood flow in humans[2].

Potential interactions involving platelet function are described in section 4.a.

Numerous food components and herbs have anti-inflammatory effects when studied in vitro. Degradation by intestinal flora, poor absorption and rapid inactivation by conjugation render most of these ineffective in vivo.  The only supplements shown to affect the anti-inflammatory activity of NSAIDs in controlled clinical trials are fish oil and evening primrose oil. Of all dietary supplements, omega-3 fatty acids derived from fish oil have demonstrated the greatest range of therapeutic drug enhancement (see Table 2). In patients with active rheumatoid arthritis, fish oil supplying 1710 mg of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and 1140 mg of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) per day[3]  or evening primrose oil supplying 540 mg of gamma-linolenic acid (GLA) per day appear to allow a significant reduction in NSAID use without increasing indices of disease activity. A combination of evening primrose oil and fish oil supplying 450 mg of GLA and 240 mg of EPA per day, may have a similar effect.[4]. The effect of fish oils in reducing NSAID requirements of patients with rheumatoid arthritis is measurable by 12 weeks and persists for at least 12 months.

b. 5-ASA Derivatives

5-ASA derivatives are primarily used to treat colonic inflammation. Drugs of this class, sulfasalazine in particular, can impair folic acid transport[5], creating hyperhomocysteinemia[6], a risk factor for deep vein thrombosis[7], which is an extra-intestinal complication of inflammatory bowel disease. Co-administration of folic acid with 5-ASA derivatives is effective in preventing hyperhomocysteinemia; folic acid may also reduce the incidence of colon cancer in patients with ulcerative colitis[8] [9]. One study found that a high dose of folic acid (15 mg/day) reversed sulfasalazine-induced pancytopenia in two patients[10].

Fish oil capsules may reduce requirements for 5-ASA derivatives and improve maintenance of remission for patients with ulcerative colitis receiving 5-ASA therapy (see Table 2).

Two specific probiotic supplements appear to enhance the therapeutic efficacy of 5-ASA derivatives for induction or maintenance of remission in patients with inflammatory bowel disease. VSL-3, a proprietary mixture of Lactobacillus acidophilus, L. bulgaricus, L. casei, L plantarum, Bifidobacteriium brevis, B. infantis, B. longum and Streptococcus salivarius ssp thermophilus, at a dose of 900 billion CFU twice a day added to therapy with balsalazide, induced faster remission of active ulcerative colitis than balsalazide or mesalazine alone[11]. Saccharomyces boulardii, a yeast with anti-inflammatory and immune stimulating effects, appears to potentiate the effects of mesalamine in inducing remission in patients with active ulcerative colitis[12] and reducing the frequency of relapse in patients with Crohn’s disease[13].

c. Glucocorticoids

Chromium picolinate, 600 mcg/day, may reverse steroid-induced diabetes in humans; one study demonstrated a decrease in mean blood glucose from 250 mg/dL to 150 mg/dL and a 50% reduction in dose requirement for oral hypoglycemics[14]. Similar effects have been described in rats treated with dexamethasone[15].

Calcium plus vitamin D is effective at preventing steroid-induced reduction of lumbar spine density in patients receiving steroids for less than three years[16] [17].  Two reasons for adding calcium and vitamin D supplementation to a glucocorticoid regimen are: (1) glucocorticoids increase calcium excretion, and (2) glucocorticoids induce resistance to the enhancement of intestinal calcium absorption by calcitriol (1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D).[18]

DHEA (dehydroepiandrosterone) may augment the effects of therapy with corticosteroids and diminish side effects. In steroid-treated patients with severe systemic lupus (SLE), DHEA, 200 mg/day for 6 months, improved the SLE-disease activity index and prevented steroid-induced bone loss, when compared to placebo[19]. DHEA also allowed reduction of prednisone dose to less than 7.5 mg/day in a larger proportion of patients than did placebo[20]. In patients with Addison's disease, addition of DHEA, 50 mg/day, to usual steroid replacement therapy, improved energy and mood, compared to placebo[21]. 

Herbal preparations can alter metabolism of endogenous and exogenous glucocorticoids. Glycyrrhetinic acid (the aglycone of glycyrrhizin), a component of licorice, increases the half-life and area under the curve (AUC) of orally administered prednisolone, presumably by inhibiting renal 11 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase  and hepatic enzymes involved in beta-hydroxysteroid metabolism[22]. Despite equal content of glycyrrhizin, however, three separate formulas used in traditional Chinese and Japanese kampo medicine had qualitatively different effects on 11 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase. Sho-saiko-to (xiao chai hu tang), used in Asia for treatment of chronic hepatitis and now available in the U.S., was found to reduce prednisolone AUC by 17%, through an unknown mechanism[23].

d. Acetaminophen

            Acetaminophen toxicity results from production of N-acetyl-p-benzoquinone imine (NAPQI) by hepatic cytochrome P450 2E1. NAPQI is usually detoxified by conjugation with glutathione (GSH). The amino acid N-acetylcysteine (NAC), a glutathione precursor, protects against this toxicity[24] and, orally or intravenously, is the treatment of choice for acetaminophen overdose[25]. Several supplements prevent acetaminophen toxicity in laboratory animals; no human studies of these have been reported.

e. Narcotics

          Administration of St. John's wort (Hypericum perforatum) to four patients on maintenance methadone reduced methadone bioavailability by 47%, producing symptoms of methadone withdrawal in two[26]. St. John’s wort has shown clinically significant adverse interactions with more medications than any other dietary supplement (see Table 3). What makes St. John’s wort so problematic is its ability with chronic use to induce enzymes of drug metabolism and detoxification, especially the cytochrome P450 isozyme CYP3A4, which metabolizes about 50% of all drugs commonly used in the United States, and the P-glycoprotein (P-gp) transport protein.[27] P-gp ejects a variety of xenobiotics from cells. Drugs that are slowly absorbed and also are substrates for intestinal P-gp may have their plasma levels significantly reduced by St. John’s wort. Variability of pharmacokinetic interactions with St. John's wort may reflect the variability of hyperforin content in St. John's wort preparations. Hyperforin appears to be the component of St. John's wort responsible for CYP induction[28]

Yohimbine, an alkaloid derived from yohimbe bark, which is used to enhance sexual function, elicited signs and symptoms of opioid withdrawal in patients receiving methadone maintenance therapy[29]. Yohimbine inhibits central alpha 2-adrenergic receptors that enhance narcotic effects[30].

 

2. ANTIARRHYTHMIC/ANTIHYPERTENSIVE

a. Digoxin

The earliest antiarrhythmic drug, digitalis, and the earliest hypotensive agent, reserpine, were derived from herbal extracts. Numerous herbs contain cardiac glycosides with structural similarity to digitalis[31], but published interactions in humans are limited to alterations in the measurement of digoxin concentration in serum, without clinical effect, caused by ginseng preparations[32] [33].  Licorice may cause pseudoaldosteronism and hypokalemia[34], which can promote digoxin toxicity.

Magnesium supplementation enhances the anti-arrhythmic effect of digoxin and helps to protect against digitalis toxicity[35]; digoxin increases renal magnesium losses, contributing to hypomagnesemia, which lowers the threshold for the development of digitalis toxicity[36]. Magnesium supplementation may be beneficial for patients with normal renal function receiving digoxin therapy.

Gum guar, wheat bran and St. John's wort may decrease plasma digoxin concentration by decreasing intestinal absorption[37].

 

b. Beta-blockers

            Adverse clinical interactions between beta-blockers and dietary supplements have not been published, although herbal preparations containing caffeine or ephedra would be expected to counteract the pharmacodynamic properties of beta-blockers.

            Fish oils may enhance the antihypertensive effects of beta-blockers.  (see Table 2).  Although fish oils show antiarrhythmic effects, they do not appear to have antiarrhythmic synergy with beta-blockers. [38]

In patients receiving propranolol, coenzyme Q10 60 mg bid may reduce the incidence of cardiac arrhythmia, angina and heart failure during the first 28 days post-myocardial infarction[39] and of cardiac events over the subsequent year[40]. At 90 mg bid, coenzyme Q10 appears to diminish the negative chronotropic and inotropic effects of ocular timolol, used for treatment of glaucoma, without impairment of  therapeutic response[41].

Chromium picolinate 600 mcg/day may raise serum HDL-cholesterol in men taking beta-blockers, without affecting total cholesterol[42].

c. Calcium channel blockers

The dihydropyridine calcium channel blockers are substrates for CYP3A and are potentially subject to pharmacokinetic interactions with numerous herbs that inhibit or induce CYP3A isozymes[43]. This interaction was demonstrated in human volunteers when nifedipine and felodipine were taken with peppermint oil, a CYP3A inhibitor[44]. Although garlic extracts may induce CYP3A (and were shown to reduce bioavailability of saquinavir in human volunteers[45]), no interaction between garlic and calcium channel blockers has yet been reported.

Pycnogenol (an extract of bark of the French maritime pine), 100 mg/day for 12 weeks, reduced blood pressure in hypertensive patients taking nifedipine, allowing reduction in drug dosage in a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial[46]. In vitro, pycnogenol stimulates endothelial nitric oxide synthesis, an effect that appears to rest with the oligomeric proanthocyanidin fraction[47].

d. ACE inhibitors

ACE inhibitors, captopril in particular, have metal-binding sites. Co-administration of iron (and possibly other metals) with ACE inhibitors may significantly reduce drug absorption, impairing the antihypertensive response[48].

ACE inhibitors decrease potassium excretion, so that administration of potassium to patients taking ACE inhibitors may cause severe hyperkalemia[49].

The addition of NAC 600 mg t.i.d. to captopril or enalapril treatment of hypertensive male smokers enhanced the antihypertensive effect of the drug, presumably by protecting vascular nitric oxide from oxidation.[50]

 

3. ANTIBIOTIC

a. Tetracyclines, quinolones

            Chelation of minerals by tetracycline and quinolone antibiotics significantly reduces intestinal absorption and may lead to therapeutic failure. Studies in rats have demonstrated that common herbs like dandelion[51] and fennel[52] can be so rich in minerals that they inhibit absorption of these antibiotics.

b. Metronidazole

            Silymarin, a group of flavonoids found in milk thistle, was shown to reduce the bioavailability and blood levels of metronidazole by 30% among healthy volunteers,[53] an effect that may lead to therapeutic failure. None of the suspected mechanisms for this interaction are consistent with other known effects of milk thistle.

Vitamin C (250 mg bid) plus vitamin E (200 IU bid), impaired the effectiveness of metronidazole in the treatment of H. pylori infection[54], again through an unidentified mechanism.

Saccharomyces boulardii 250 mg t.i.d. enhanced therapeutic efficacy of metronidazole and diiodoquinol in treatment of acute amebic colitis, reducing the duration of diarrhea by 75% and of fever and abdominal pain by 50% and reducing the prevalence of post-treatment amebic cystosis from 18% to 0[55]. S. boulardii (1000 mg/day) appears to enhance therapeutic efficacy of metronidazole[56] and vancomycin[57] in the treatment of recurrent Clostridium difficile colitis, but may not be beneficial for a first attack of C. difficile colitis.

c. Nitrofurantoin

Deglycyrrhizinated licorice (DGL) administered along with nitrofurantoin to patients with urinary tract infection may increase the urinary concentration of nitrofurantoin, possibly enhancing efficacy[58]. One early controlled study found that combining DGL with nitrofurantoin improved outcome of patients being treated for pyelonephritis[59].

d. Trimethoprim

            Although used as an antibiotic, trimethoprim is also a potassium-sparing diuretic, similar in action to amiloride. Concomitant use of trimethoprim with potassium salts may contribute to hyperkalemia[60].

e. Antibiotic-associated diarrhea (AAD)

            Probiotic supplements are effective in reducing the incidence of AAD in children[61] [62]and adults[63], although the magnitude of the effect varies considerably. The majority of positive studies have been done with Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG and S. boulardii.

 

4. ANTITHROMBOTIC

a. Aspirin and other inhibitors of platelet function

            Numerous dietary supplements inhibit platelet function in laboratory experiments. [ref 31, Ulbrect et al]. Many of these, however, do not manifest antiplatelet effects when taken orally by human volunteers. Turmeric[64], flaxseed oil,[65] borage oil (a source of GLA)[66] and primrose oil[67] are notable examples of substances identified as antithrombotic that have no demonstrable effect  on hemostatic parameters in controlled human experiments. Others, like resveratrol, only inhibit the function of platelets that are washed ex vivo and have no effect on platelets suspended in whole blood, rendering any clinical effect unlikely[68]. Dietary supplements that inhibit human platelet function after oral administration are listed in Table 4. These might act in an additive fashion with antiplatelet drugs, but few actual interactions have been reported. Vitamin E (alpha-tocopherol) is an exception.

Vitamin E and aspirin have synergistic antiplatelet effects. Aspirin inhibits platelet aggregation; alpha-tocopherol inhibits platelet adhesion to the vascular endothelium. The interaction may be adverse or beneficial, depending upon the clinical circumstances.  Use of low doses of alpha-tocopherol (50 IU/day) increased the risk of gingival bleeding by 25% among men taking aspirin, according to an often-cited study.[69] The addition of 400 IU/day of alpha-tocopherol to 325 mg aspirin/day significantly reduced the incidence of transient ischemic attacks (TIAs) in patients with previous TIAs, when compared to aspirin alone.[70]

Fish oils do not show an additive or synergistic antiplatelet interaction with aspirin[71] but may act synergistically to prolong bleeding time[72]. A prospective long-term study, however, found no increase in bleeding episodes or abnormalities of hemostasis attributable to the combination of 300 mg aspirin with 4000 mg fish oil/day[73].

Policosanol, a mixture of primary aliphatic alcohols isolated from sugar cane wax, exerts dose-dependent inhibition of platelet aggregation, with 20 mg of policosanol/day producing an effect similar to 100 mg of aspirin/day. Combination of aspirin and policosanol produces a mild additive effect in healthy volunteers[74].

A single case report describes spontaneous intraocular bleeding associated with the combined use of aspirin and Ginkgo biloba extract [ref 43, Izzo].

 

b. Warfarin

Although many reviews warn of potential interactions between dietary supplements and warfarin, few have actually been reported (see Table 5) and some  

highly publicized case reports have failed confirmation in controlled studies.

Coenzyme Q10 is structurally similar to vitamin K and has been reported to interfere with response to warfarin, based upon uncontrolled case reports[75] [76]; however, no effect of coenzyme Q10, 100 mg/day for 4 weeks, on warfarin effect was seen in a placebo-controlled trial.[77]  Similarly, early reports indicated increased bleeding in patients receiving warfarin along with vitamin E,[78] but a controlled study showed no effect of vitamin E on the anticoagulant response to warfarin, as measured by INR, at doses up to 1200 IU/day[79]. Case reports of vitamin C and fish oil[80] increasing warfarin effect have also not been validated in controlled experimental studies[81]. Although two case reports suggest a decreased warfarin effect in patients taking ginseng[82] [83], a controlled study showed no interaction[84]. Variations in the ginseng preparations used may account for the differences.

            Because of its narrow therapeutic range, extensive binding to plasma protein and extensive hepatic metabolism, warfarin is likely to be sensitive to interactions with numerous drugs and herbs, so that extreme caution should always be used by patients taking warfarin when adding any dietary supplement.

 

5. ANTILIPEMIC

Most HMG coA reductase inhibitors (statins) are substrates for P-gp and CYP3A, making them candidates for pharmacokinetic interactions with herbs that alter activity of these enzymes (ref 43, Izzo). St. John’s wort decreases the serum concentration of simvastatin (see Table 3), but does not affect pravastatin pharmacokinetics, because pravastatin metabolism is less subject to the activity of CYP and P-gp.

Red yeast rice contains monacolin K, which is identical with lovastatin, and yields similar clinical and toxicological effects[85]. Presumably, red yeast rice would have added therapeutic and toxic effects with any statin, although commercial preparations of red yeast rice extract vary considerably in their monacolin content[86].

            An antioxidant cocktail consisting of ß-carotene 25 mg, vitamin C 1000 mg, vitamin E 800 mg., and selenium 100 mcg, adversely affected the reduction in cardiovascular events of simvastatin-niacin therapy among 160 patients with coronary artery disease, low HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C <35) levels and normal LDL-cholesterol (mean LDL-C,140) [87]. Further analysis found that the antioxidant cocktail prevented the increase in protective HDL2-C produced by simvastatin-niacin [88]and blunted the protective increase in HDL-C particle size associated with simvastatin-niacin therapy [89].  These adverse effects were reproduced using vitamin E and vitamin C alone[90].  Selenium by itself actually enhanced the simvastatin-niacin increase in HDL-C2[91].  In contrast, a large prospective study of 20, 563 hyperlipidemic individuals receiving simvastatin without niacin, found that a similar antioxidant cocktail (650 IU vitamin E, 250 mg vitamin C and 20 mg beta-carotene) produced no alteration, positive or negative, in in any therapeutic parameter[92]. The adverse effect of vitamins E and C on anti-lipemic therapy may be specific to patients with low HDL-C.

            All statins reduce synthesis of the endogenous antioxidant, coenzyme Q10[93]. Statin-induced coenzyme Q10 depletion may impair mitochondrial function, raising the serum lactate/pyruvate ratio.[94] Supplemental coenzyme-Q10, 100 mg/day, prevents the decline in serum coenzyme Q10 levels without impairment of the hypolipidemic effect of the statin[95] and may reduce symptoms of statin myopathy, according to a small controlled study[96]. Statin-induced coenzyme Q10 depletion may actually be increased by vitamin E (700 IU/day)[97], possibly because coenzyme Q10 is consumed in the recycling of the oxidative metabolites of vitamin E (tocopheryl quinones) to tocopherols.[98]  Co-enzyme Q10 depletion might possibly explain the reversal by vitamin E of the vascular benefits of atorvastatin in patients with heart failure[99].

 

6. ANTINEOPLASTIC

Because most antineoplastic agents are highly toxic and have a narrow therapeutic range, the use of dietary supplements by cancer patients has generated considerable concern. St. John’s wort is a particular problem, not only because of adverse pharmacokinetic interactions due to enzyme induction by one of its components, hyperformin (see Table 3), but also because another component, hypericin, may interfere with a pharmacodynamic mechanism shared by many antineoplastic agents, topoisomerase inhibition[100].

Natural substances other than St. John’s wort that induce P-gp or other transport proteins have the potential to diminish effectiveness of cancer chemotherapy. Although studies in vivo are lacking, in vitro studies indicate that the chronic exposure to the flavonoids quercetin, kaempferol, and silibinin (derived from milk thistle) induce P-gp [ref 160].  Other herbal derivatives are being tested for P-gp inhibition, in an effort to find substances that can overcome multi-drug resistance to cancer chemotherapy[101].  Green tea catechins may either inhibit or induce P-gp, depending upon their structure [ref 160]. The use of herbal therapies in conjunction with chemotherapy creates a serious potential risk for adverse interaction. During the course of a clinical trial, self-administration of essiac tea, a polyherbal product specifically marketed for cancer treatment, was associated with markedly elevated levels of exatecan mesylate and significant clinical toxicity, although the mechanism of the interaction has not been established[102].

Other dietary supplements contraindicated with chemotherapy include zinc and high dose vitamin B6 for patients receiving platins. Zinc supplementation induces synthesis of metallothionein, a metal efflux enzyme that can reduce cellular concentration of platinum-derived antineoplastic drugs, inhibiting effectiveness of cisplatin in rodents.[103] An interaction in humans has not been reported, but it seems prudent to avoid zinc supplementation in patients receiving platins. Many commonly used multivitamin preparations contain zinc. Although high dose pyridoxine (300 mg/square meter/day for 3 weeks) decreased toxicity of cisplatin/hexamethylmelamine therapy of patients with advanced ovarian cancer, its use was associated with decreased duration of the treatment response[104].

In contrast, there are several dietary supplements that have been shown to decrease the side effects of chemotherapy without adversely effecting therapeutic outcome, according to small clinical trials (see Table 6). Some of these substances are classified as antioxidants.

A detailed discussion of the controversy concerning co-administration of antioxidants with cancer chemotherapy is outside the scope of this chapter. The controversy itself is based upon a misunderstanding of the concept of “antioxidant”, which is a conditional term, not an absolute one. Almost all antioxidants exist in at least two redox states and function as pro-oxidants under appropriate conditions. The notion that antioxidants protect cancer cells from the effects of chemotherapy is not supported by empirical data; on the other hand, the notion that antioxidants protect normal tissue from the toxicity of antineoplastic agents needs to be established with specific doses of specific supplements used in conjunction with defined chemotherapeutic agents.

 

7. DIURETIC

          Numerous case reports of severe hypokalemia resulting from the combination of various diuretic agents with licorice have appeared[105]. Licorice may also reverse the antihypertensive effects of diuretics. The presumed mechanism for both effects is pseudoaldosteronism, produced by a metabolite of glycyrrhizin that inhibits 11-beta hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase.

          A single case report describes hypertension in a patient taking Ginkgo biloba along with a thiazide diuretic[106]. The presence of an interaction was not established.

            Several case reports describe symptomatic hypercalcemia resulting from the combination of thiazide diuretics, which inhibit renal calcium excretion, and vitamin D[107] [108] [109]or calcium supplements[110].

Potassium-sparing diuretics decrease magnesium excretion. Severe hypermagnesemia has occurred when magnesium-containing products were taken by patients using amiloride[111]. The interaction has not yet been reported for triamterene; and may not occur with spironolactone; in healthy unsupplemented subjects, spironolactone, in contrast to amiloride, does not elevate serum magnesium concentration[112].

            Numerous herbs are alleged to have diuretic or cathartic effects. Herbs with diuretic action traditionally ascribed to them include buchu, burdock, butcher's broom, celery seed, cornsilk, couch grass, dandelion, elder broom, goldenrod, gravel root, horsetail, parsley, juniper, stinging nettle, uva-ursi and wild carrot.  Potentiation of diuretic medication by these herbs is possible, but not demonstrated. Abuse of Cascara segrada has been associated with hypokalemia[113]; concomitant use of an herbal laxative with a diuretic might produce additive depletion of potassium.

 

8. HYPOGLYCEMIC

            Almost all reported interactions between dietary supplements and anti-diabetic agents are pharmacodynamic and result from potentiation of hypoglycemia. In a systematic review of interactions between drugs and herbs in a hospital clinic population, two-thirds of the observed  interactions was potentiation of oral hypoglycemics by nopal (prickly pear cactus)[114].  The most frequently prescribed oral hypoglycemic, the biguanide metformin, is itself an herbal derivative, originally found in French lilac (Galega officinalis), used traditionally for treatment of diabetes.

A review of clinical research on the hypoglycemic effect of natural products concluded that the best evidence for efficacy from adequately designed randomized controlled trials is available for Coccinia indica and American ginseng[115].  Table 7 lists supplements demonstrated to reduce blood sugar or improve insulin sensitivity in small clinical trials of diabetic patients. None of these agents appears adequate as stand alone therapy[116], but many of them are in common use among different ethnic groups, creating the potential for clinically significant drug interactions among diabetics who use them. Nopal  is the most widely used herbal hypoglycemic among persons of Mexican descent and bitter melon (karela) is more commonly used by persons from Asia[117].  

            Concerns that glucosamine[118] or fish oil[119] supplementation might impair glycemic control have not been supported in controlled studies

 

 

9. IMMUNE MODULATION

          Cyclosporine blood levels are subject to control by P-gp and CYP3A activity, creating great potential for pharmacokinetic interactions with natural products. The increase in cyclosporine trough concentration by grapefruit juice is well-known and has been used therapeutically[120]. St. John’s wort, conversely, reduces cyclosporine levels (see Table 3). Cyclosporine in its turn inhibits metabolism of statins, increasing blood levels and the potential for toxicity. Rhabdomylosis, a manifestation of statin toxicity, occurred in a renal transplant patient taking cyclosporine and red yeast rice, which contains the natural lovastatin analogue, monacolin K[121].

Cyclosporine nephrotoxicity in transplant patients has been mitigated by fish oils (see Table 2) and in one study by vitamin E (alpha-tocopherol acetate 500 mg/day)[122].

            Folic acid, 1 to 5 mg/day, decreases the toxicity of low-dose methotrexate in patients with rheumatoid arthritis[123] or psoriasis[124] without affecting the therapeutic efficacy of methotrexate. At 5 mg/day, folic acid may prevent methotrexate-induced nausea (ref 123) and the rise in homocysteine associated with methotrexate therapy[125]. It also may increase the cellular uptake of methotrexate[126] and perhaps should not be taken on the day methotrexate is injected.

            Interferon-alpha, used in the treatment of chronic hepatitis C infection, may have its therapeutic and toxic effects enhanced by dietary supplements. The polyherbal medicine sho-saiko-to, used in Japan to treat chronic hepatitis C, is now available in the United States. Allergic pneumonitis, an uncommon side effect of both sho-saiko-to and interferon alpha, is several times more likely to occur when the medications are administered together[127] Sho-saiko-to’s principal ingredient, bupleurum, is thought to owe its anti-fibrotic effects to the flavonoids baicalin and baicalein, which are structurally similar to the antifibrotic flavonoid silibinin, found in milk thistle[128], an herb frequently taken by patients with chronic liver disease. Until more information is available, it seems prudent to advise patients receiving interferon to avoid concomitant use of milk thistle and bupleurum-containing herbs.

            On the other hand, the addition of zinc (150 mg/day as zinc carnisonate[129] or 300 mg/day as zinc sulphate[130]) may enhance the response to interferon therapy without increasing toxicity.

 

10. NITRATES

            Three supplements appear to  prevent or reverse nitrate tolerance, according to small human studies. NAC, 2400 mg orally, b.i.d. for 2 days increased the exercise tolerance of patients receiving isosorbide mononitrate (ISMN), when compared to ISMN plus placebo[131]. High dose NAC helps to prevent nitrate tolerance in patients with normal left ventricular function, but results are variable in patients with congestive heart failure[132] [133] [134]. Oral NAC at a dose of 400 mg t.i.d did not prevent nitrate tolerance in patients with normal cardiac function and stable angina pectoris[135]. Organic nitrates release nitric oxide (NO), a step that requires the presence of thiol groups; depletion of thiols by oxidation is thought to be responsible for nitrate tolerance and NAC is used as a source of replacement sulfhydryl groups. NAC not only potentiates the cardioprotective effects of nitrates, but also aggravates nitrate-induced headache[136].

            L-arginine, the amino acid precursor of nitric oxide, at a dose of 700 mg q.i.d. by mouth, attenuated the development of tolerance to transdermal nitroglycerine over a 2 week period in patients with stable angina pectoris, but had no effect on initial response to nitrate[137].

            Folic acid 10 mg/day prevented both nitrate tolerance and nitric oxide synthase dysfunction induced by continuous nitroglycerine in the arterial circulation of healthy volunteers[138]. Continuous treatment with nitroglycerin may reduce bioavailability of tetrahydrobiopterin, an essential cofactor for nitric acid synthase. Folate is involved in regeneration of tetrahydrobiopterin.

 

CONCLUSION

            Because clinically significant interactions between dietary supplements and medication exist, physicians must know all the supplements their patients are taking. Extreme caution should be taken by patients using high risk medications like warfarin, cytotoxic agents and anti-retroviral protease inhibitors. The literature on drug-supplement interactions is dominated by reviews that stress potential adverse interactions due to CYP or P-gp induction/inhibition or to additive pharmacodynamic effects. Many of these are not substantiated when tested in controlled human experiments. A number of small clinical trials demonstrate benefits of dietary supplements in augmenting drug effects or decreasing toxicity. Familiarity with these will allow physicians to direct their patients in the use of dietary supplements to enhance the effectiveness of conventional care. Prescribed in this fashion, it may be possible to apply precision to the use of dietary supplements.

 

TABLE 1. SUPPLEMENTS THAT DECREASE GASTROINTESTINAL TOXICITY OF ASPIRIN OR NON-STEROIDAL ANTIINFLAMMATORY DRUGS

 

DRUG                    SUPPLEMENT                                        EFFECTS____________                                  

Aspirin               Vitamin C                        Prevents duodenal injury[139]and gastric lesions[140]

 

Aspirin               Deglycyrrhizinated          Reduces fecal blood loss[141]

                           licorice (DGL)

 

Aspirin               Cayenne                           Pretreatment reduces gastric mucosal damage.[142]

Aspirin               S-adenosylmethionine     Co-administration reduces erosive gastritis. [143]

 

Indomethacin     L-glutamine                     Prevents increased small bowel permeability[144].

 

Indomethacin     Bovine colostrum            Prevents increased small bowel permeability[145]

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

TABLE 2. OMEGA-3 FATTY ACID ENHANCEMENT OF CLINICAL RESPONSE TO MEDICATION IN CONTROLLED CLINICAL TRIALS

 

DRUG/CLASS  DIAGNOSIS             OMEGA-3 DOSE     EFFECT____________

5-ASA                ulcerative colitis        4.2 to 5.1 g/day         Prevent early relapse[146],

inhibitor                                                                                  Permit reduced drug dose[147]

 

Antidepressant    unipolar depression   6.6 g/day                   Improved mood[148]

 

Beta-blocker       mild hypertension       2.9-3.4 g/day         Reduced blood pressure[149] [150]

 

Bronchodilator   exercise-induced         5.2 g/day                 Improved pulmonary function

                               bronchospasm                                           reduced bronchodilator use[151]

 

Cyclosporine      liver transplant           4 g/day                     Improved renal function[152]                

                           renal transplant           3 g/day                     Improved renal function[153]

                           heart transplant            3.4 g/day                 Reduced blood pressure[154]

 

Lithium               bipolar disorder           9.6 g/day                 Global clinical improvement[155]          

 

Neuroleptic         schizophrenia              2 g/day of EPA       Improved symptom control[156]

 

 

NSAID               rheumatoid arthritis    2.85 g/day                Reduction of NSAID dose[157]

 

Statin                  combined                    1400-2800mg/day    Increased HDL-C and

                           hyperlipidemia             as ethyl esters          decreased postprandial

                                                                                                hypertriglyceridemia[158] and

                                                                                                hypercoagulability[159] [160]

 

 

________________________________________________________________________

 

 

 

 

TABLE 3. DRUGS WITH SIGNIFICANT REDUCTION IN PLASMA LEVELS WHEN CO-ADMINISTERED WITH ST. JOHN’S WORT IN HUMAN STUDIES

 

Alprazolam*[161]

Amprenavir[162]

Amitriptyline[163]

Benzodiazepines (ref 162)

Cyclosporine[164]

Dextromethorphan[165]

Digoxin*[166]

Fexofenadine[167]

Imatinib[168]

Indinavir[169]

Irinotecan[170]

Lopinavir (ref 162)

Methadone (see text)

Midazolam[171]

Nevirapine[172]

Omeprazole (varies with genetic polymorphism in CYP3A4 and CYP2C19 activity)[173]

Oral contraceptives[174]

Ritonavir (ref 162)

Simvastain (but not pravastatin)[175]

Tacrolimus (but not mycophenalate)[176]

Theophylline (ref 165)

Verapamil[177]

Warfarin[178]

 

*Interaction occurs only with high hyperforin content St. John’s wort.

 

 

 

 

TABLE 4. DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS THAT INHIBIT PLATELET FUNCTION AFTER ORAL ADMINISTRATION TO HUMANS

 

SUPPLEMENT               COMMENTS______________________________________                                      

Dong quai                   inhibits pathological platelet activation in ulcerative colitis[179]

Fish oil                        reduced PAF- and collagen-activated aggregation[180]

Garlic                          inhibits thromboxane synthesis[181]

Ginger                         may decrease thromboxane synthesis[182]

Gingko biloba             inhibits collagen-activated aggregation[183], effect inconsistent[184]      

Licorice                       glycyrrhizin exerts in vivo effect[185]

Policosanol                  decreases thromboxane synthesis[186]

Pycnogenol                 only inhibits cigarette-induced aggregation in smokers[187]

Reishi                          effect requires high dose extracts[188]

Resveratrol                  inhibits ADP[189]- and thrombin-induced[190] aggregation

Saw palmetto              case report of increased bleeding time and hemorrhage[191]

Tocopherols, mixed    mild inhibition of ADP-induced aggregation[192]

Tocotrienols               decrease thromboxane synthesis[193] but not hemostasis[194]

Vitamin E                   inhibits platelet adhesion, not aggregation[195]

 

 

TABLE 5. DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS WITH DOCUMENTED INTERACTIONS WITH WARFARIN

 

SUPPLEMENT                 COMMENTS_______________________________________

Boldo                             hemorrhage, single case report[196]

Chlorella                         vitamin K content may inhibit warfarin effect[197]

Danshen                         increases INR[198]

Devil’s claw                   purpura, single case report[199]

Dong quai                      increased INR, single case report[200]

Fenugreek                      hemorrhage, single case report [boldo ref]

Garlic                             two case reports of increased INR[201]

Ginkgo biloba                intracerebral hemorrhage, case report[202]

Lyceum barbarum          case report of increase INR[203]

Panax ginseng                increased clearance without effect on hemostasis[204]

Red yeast rice                monacolin K, identical with lovastatin, augments the anticoagulant effect of warfarin[205]

St John’s wort                decreased INR in multiple case reports[206]

Vinpocetin                     mild reduction in warfarin effect, unknown mechanism[207]

 

 

 

 

 

TABLE 6. DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS THAT MAY PREVENT TOXICITY OF ANTINEOPLASTIC CHEMOTHERAPY: CLINICAL TRIALS

 

SUPPLEMENT          ANTINEOPLASTIC             INTERACTION________________

coenzyme Q10*         adriamycin                               decreased cardiotoxicity[208]

glutamine                    various                                     decreased mucositis[209], anthracycline                  

cardiotoxicity, irinotecan diarrhea, paclitaxel neuropathy[210]

magnesium**              cisplatin                                   decreased renal tubular damage[211]

melatonin                    cisplatin, etoposide                 decreased myelosuppression and

                                                                                    neuropathy[212]

                                    interleukin-2                            decreased hypotension[213]                                           

N-acetyl cysteine        ifosfamide                               decreased hemorrhagic cystitis[214]

selenium                      cisplatin                                   reduced myelosuppression and

                                                                                    nephrotoxicity[215]                                

vitamin B6                 5-flurouracil                              reverse palmar-plantar dysesthesia[216]

                                   

vitamin E                     cisplatin                                   decreased neurotoxicity[217]

 

* Adriamycin inhibits coenzyme Q10 synthesis[218]

**Cisplatin induces severe intracellular magnesium depletion[219]

 

 

TABLE 7: DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS WITH HYPOGLYCEMIC OR INSULIN-SENSITIZING EFFECTS DEMONSTRATED IN DIABETIC HUMANS

 

Supplement                                                Effect________________________________

 

Aloe vera, dried sap, ½ tsp/day   Reduces fasting blood sugar in NIDDM[220]

Aloe vera, juice, 1 tbsp bid          Potentiates action of glyburide[221]

 

Alpha lipoic acid (600 mg/day)   Improves insulin sensitivity[222]

                                                     Improves diabetic control and neuropathy[223]

 

Bitter melon (Momordica            Weak hypoglycemic action in NIDDM[224]

            charantia)

 

Chromium                                    Most extensively studied with inconclusive and                                                                    conflicting results in NIDDM[225] [226] [227] [228] [229]

 

Coccinia indica                             Reduces blood sugar[230]

 

Fenugreek (25 g/day)                    Reduces blood sugar in NIDDM[231]

 

Ginseng, American (3000 mg)       Reduces glycemic response to glucose challenge[232] [233]

 

Ginseng, Asian (200 mg/day)        Reduces blood sugar and glycohemoglobin[234]

 

Gymnema silvestre(400 mg/day)   Reduces insulin requirements[235]

                                                        Reduces need for oral hypoglycemics[236]

 

Nopal (Opuntia spp.)                      Broiled stems (500 g) reduce blood sugar[237] [238]

                                                        Capsules  are ineffective[239] [240]     

 

Pycnogenol (100 mg/day)               Reduces glucose, improves endothelial function[241]

                                                        Improves diabetic retinopathy[242]

 

Saltbush (Atriplex halimus)            Hypoglycemic, insulin potentiating[243]

 

Vanadyl sulfate (100-150 mg/day)  Improves glycemia and insulin sensitivity[244] [245] [246] [247]

                                                         Small reduction in insulin requirement[248]

 

Vijayasar(Pterocarpus marsupium) Reduces blood sugar in mild NIDDM[249]

 

Vitamin D                                       Increases insulin sensitivity in vitamin D deficiency[250]

 

Vitamin E (600-900 IU/day)           Improves glycemic control[251] and insulin action[252]

                                                        Reduces glycohemoglobin and plasma insulin[253]

 

 

 

 



[1] Galland, L. Drug-Nutrient Workshop. New York. Applied Nutrition, Inc., 2004.

 

[2] DRUG-NUTRIENT WORKSHOP: Pohle et al, Role of reactive oxygen metabolites in aspirin-induced gastric damage in humans: gastroprotection by vitamin C.

Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 2001; 15: 677-87.

 

[3] DRUG-NUTRIENT WORKSHOP: Lau et al, Effects of fish oil supplementation on non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug requirement in patients with mild rheumatoid arthritis--a double-blind placebo controlled study. Br J Rheumatol. 1993; 32: 982-89.

 

[4] DRUG-NUTRIENT WORKSHOP: Belch et al, Effects of altering dietary essential fatty acids on requirements for non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs in patients with rheumatoid arthritis: a double blind placebo controlled study. Ann Rheum Dis. 1988; 47: 96-104.

 

[5] DRUG-NUTRIENT WORKSHOP. Mason JB.. Folate, colitis, dysplasia, and cancer. Nutr Rev. 1989 Oct;47(10):314-7.

 

[6] Chowers Y, Sela BA, Holland R et al: Increased levels of homocysteine in patients with Crohn’s

disease are related to folate levels. Am J Gastroenterol 2000;95:3498–3502.

 

[7] Den Heijer M, Koster T, Blom HJ et al: Hyperhomocysteinemia as a risk factor for deep-vein thrombosis. N Engl J Med 1996;334:759–762.

 

[8] Lashner BA, Provencher KS, Seidner DL, Knesebeck A, Brzezinski A. et al, Effect of folate supplementation on the incidence of dysplasia and cancer in chronic ulcerative colitis. A case-control study. Gastroenterology. 1989 ;97: 255-59.

[9] Diculescu M, Ciocirlan M, Ciocirlan M, Pitigoi D, Becheanu G, Croitoru A, Spanache S et al, Folic acid and sulfasalazine for colorectal carcinoma chemoprevention in patients with ulcerative colitis: the old and new evidence. Rom J Gastroenterol. 2003; 12: 283-86.

 

[10] Logan EC, Williamson LM, Ryrie DR, Sulphasalazine associated pancytopenia may be caused by acute folate deficiency. Gut. 1986; 27: 868-72.

 

[11] Tursi A, Brandimarte G, Giorgetti GM, Forti G, Modeo ME, Gigliobianco A. Low-dose balsalazide plus a high-potency probiotic preparation is more effective than balsalazide alone or mesalazine in the treatment of acute mild-to-moderate ulcerative colitis. Med Sci Monit. 2004 Nov;10(11):PI126-31

[12] Guslandi M, Giollo P, Testoni PA, A pilot trial of Saccharomyces boulardii in ulcerative colitis. Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2003 Jun;15(6):697-8.

[13] Guslandi M, Mezzi G, Sorghi M, Testoni PA., Saccharomyces boulardii in maintenance treatment of Crohn's disease.Dig Dis Sci. 2000 Jul;45(7):1462-4.

 

[14] DRUG-NUTRIENT WORKSHOP: Ravina et al, Reversal of corticosteroid-induced diabetes mellitus with supplemental chromium.

Diabet Med.1999; 16: 164-67.

 

[15] DRUG-NUTRIENT WORKSHOP: Kim et al, Effects of chromium picolinate supplementation on insulin sensitivity, serum lipids, and body weight in dexamethasone-treated rats. Metabolism. 2002 May;51(5):589-94.

 

[16] DRUG-NUTRIENT WORKSHOP: Homik et al, Calcium and vitamin D for corticosteroid-induced osteoporosis. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2000;(2):CD000952.

 

[17] DRUG-NUTRIENT WORKSHOP: Adachi et al, Vitamin D and calcium in the prevention of corticosteroid induced osteoporosis: a 3 year followup. J Rheumatol. 1996; 23:995-1000.

 

[18] DRUG-NUTRIENT WORKSHOP: Morris et al, Malabsorption of calcium in corticosteroid-induced osteoporosis. Calcif Tissue Int. 1990; 46: 305-08.

 

[19] DRUG-NUTRIENT WORKSHOP: van Vollenhoven et al, A double-blind, placebo-controlled, clinical trial of dehydroepiandrosterone in severe systemic lupus erythematosus. Lupus. 1999; 8:181-87. van Vollenhoven et al, Treatment of systemic lupus erythematosus with dehydroepiandrosterone: 50 patients treated up to 12 months. J Rheumatol. 1998; 25: 285-9.

 

[20] DRUG-NUTRIENT WORKSHOP: Petri et al, Effects of prasterone on corticosteroid requirements of women with systemic lupus erythematosus: a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial. Arthritis Rheum. 2002; 46: 1820-9.

 

[21] DRUG-NUTRIENT WORKSHOP: Hunt et al, Improvement in mood and fatigue after dehydroepiandrosterone replacement in Addison's disease in a randomized, double blind trial. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2000; 85: 4650-56.

 

[22] DRUG-NUTRIENT WORKSHOP: Ojima et al, The inhibitory effects of glycyrrhizin and glyceyrrhetinic acid on the metabolism of cortisol and prednisolone--in vivo and invitro studies. Nippon Naibunpi Gakkai Zasshi 1990; 66: 584-96.

 

[23] Homma M, Oka K, Ikeshima K, Takahashi N, Niitsuma T, Fukuda T, Itoh H., Different effects of traditional Chinese medicines containing similar herbal constituents on prednisolone pharmacokinetics.
J Pharm Pharmacol. 1995;47:687-92.

 

[24] DRUG-NUTRIENT WORKSHOP: Draganov et al, Alcohol-acetaminophen syndrome. Postgrad Med 2000; 107: 189-95.

 

[25] DRUG-NUTRIENT WORKSHOP: Kozer & Koren, management of paracetamol overdose: current controversies. Drug Saf 2001; 24: 503-12.

 

[26] DRUG-NUTRIENT WORKSHOP: Eich-Hochli et al, Methadone maintenance treatment and St. John's wort--a case report. Pharmacopsychiatry 2003; 36: 35-7.

 

[27] DRUG-NUTRIENT WORKSHOP: Hennessey et al, St Johns wort increases expression of P-glycoprotein: implications for drug interactions. Br J Clin Pharmacol. 2002; 53: 75-82.

 

[28] DRUG-NUTRIENT WORKSHOP: Moore et al, St. John's wort induces hepatic drug metabolism through activation of the pregnane X receptor. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2000; 97: 7500-2.

 

[29] DRUG-NUTRIENT WORKSHOP: Stine et al, Yohimbine-induced withdrawal and anxiety symptoms in opioid-dependent patients. Biol Psychiatry. 2002; 51: 642-51.

 

[30] Scheinin & MacDonald, An introduction to the pharmacology of alpha 2-adrenoceptors in the central nervous system. Acta Vet Scand Suppl. 1989; 85:11-9.

 

[31] Ulbrect C, Basch E, Weissner W, Hackman D. An evidence-based stsrematic review of herb and supplement interactions by the Natural Standard Research Collaboration. Expert Opin. Drug. Saf. 2006; 5: 719-728.

 

[32] DRUG-NUTRIENT WORKSHOP: Dasgupta et al, effect of Asian and Siberian ginseng on serum digoxin measurement by five digoxin immunoassays. Am J Clin Path 2003; 119: 298-303.

 

[33] DRUG-NUTRIENT WORKSHOP. McRae, Elevated serrum digoxin levels in a patient taking digoxin and Siberian ginseng. CMAJ 1996; 155: 293-95.

 

[34] DRUG-NUTRIENT WORKSHOP: Walsh & Bernard, Licorice-induced pseudoaldosteronism. Am J Hos Pharm 1975; 32: 73-4.

 

[35] DRUG-NUTRIENT WORKSHOP: Crippa et al, Magnesium and cardiovascular drugs: interactions and therapeutic role. Ann Ital Med Int. 1999; 14:40-5.

 

[36] DRUG-NUTRIENT WORKSHOP: Young et al, Magnesium status and digoxin toxicity. Br J Clin Pharmacol. 1991; 32: 717-21

 

[37] Izzo AA, Di Carlo G, Borrelli F, Ernst E. Cardiovascular pharmacotherapy and herbal medicines: the risk of drug interaction. Int J Cardiol. 2005;98:1-14.

 

[38] Calò L, Bianconi L, Colivicchi F, Lamberti F, Loricchio ML, de Ruvo E, Meo A, Pandozi C, Staibano M, Santini M. N-3 Fatty acids for the prevention of atrial fibrillation after coronary artery bypass surgery: a randomized, controlled trial. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2005; 45:1723-8.

 

[39] DRUG-NUTRIENT WORKSHOP: Singh et al, Randomized, double-blind placebo-controlled trial of coenzyme Q10 in patients with acute myocardial infarction. Cardiovasc Drugs Ther. 1998; 12: 347-53.

 

 

[40] DRUG-NUTRIENT WORKSHOP: Singh et al, Effect of coenzyme Q10 on risk of atherosclerosis in patients with recent myocardial infarction. Mol Cell Biochem. 2003; 246: 75-82.

 

[41] DRUG-NUTRIENT WORKSHOP: Takahashi et al, Effect of coenzyme Q10 on hemodynamic response to ocular timolol. J Cardiovasc Pharmacol. 1989; 14: 462-68.

 

 

[42] DRUG-NUTRIENT WORKSHOP: Roeback et al, Effects of chromium supplementation on serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels in men taking beta-blockers. A randomized, controlled trial.

Ann Intern Med. 199; 115: 917-24.

 

[43] Izzo AA, Di Carlo G, Borrelli F, Ernst E. Cardiovascular pharmacotherapy and herbal medicines: the risk of drug interaction. Int J Cardiol. 2005; 98:1-14.

 

[44] DRUG-NUTRIENT WORKSHOP: Dresser et al,  Evaluation of peppermint oil and ascorbyl palmitate as inhibitors of cytochrome P4503A4 activity in vitro and in vivo. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 2002; 72: 247-55.

 

[45] Brazier MC & Levine MAH, Drug-Herb Interactions Among Commonly Used Conventional Medicines: a Compendium for Health Care Professionals. Am J Therapeutics 2003: 10: 163-9.

 

[46] DRUG-NUTRIENT WORKSHOP: Liu et al, Pycnogenol, French maritime pine bark extract, improves endothelial function of hypertensive patients. Life Sci. 2004; 74:855-62.

 

[47] DRUG-NUTRIENT WORKSHOPP: Fitspatrick et al, Endothelium-dependent vascular effects of Pycnogenol. J Cardiovasc Pharmacol. 1998; 32: 509-15.

 

[48] DRUG-NUTRIENT WORKSHOP: Schaefer et al, Ferrous sulphate interacts with captopril. Br J Clin Pharmacol. 1998; 46: 377-81.

 

[49] DRUG-NUTRIENT WORKSHOP: Burnakis & Mioduch, Combined therapy with captopril and potassium supplementation. Arch Intern med 1984; 144: 2371-73.

 

[50] Barrios V, Calderón A, Navarro-Cid J, Lahera V, Ruilope LM. N-acetylcysteine potentiates the antihypertensive effect of ACE inhibitors in hypertensive patients. Blood Press. 2002;11:235-9.

 

[51] DRUG-NUTRIENT WORKSHOP: Zhu et al, Effects of taraxacum mongolicum on the bioavailability and disposition of ciprofloxacin in rats. J Pharm Sci. 1999; 88: 632-34.

 

[52] DRUG-NUTRIENT WORKSHOP: Zhu et al, Effect of oral administration of fennel (Foeniculum vulgare) on ciprofloxacin absorption and disposition in the rat. J Pharm Pharmacol. 1999; 51: 1391-96.

 

[53] DRUG-NUTRIENT WORKSHOP: Rajnarayana et al, Study on the influence of silymarin pretreatment on metabolism and disposition of metronidazole. Arzneimittelforschung 2004; 54: 109-13.

 

[54] DRUG-NUTRIENT WORKSHOP: Chuang et al, Vitamin C and E supplements to lansoprazole-amoxacillin-metronidazole triple therapy may reduce the eradication rate of metronidazole-sensitive Helicobacter pylori infection. Helicobacter 2002;  7: 310-16.

 

[55] DRUG-NUTRIENT WORKSHOP: Mansour-Ghanei et al, Efficacy of saccaromyces boulardii with antibiotics in acute amebiasis.World J Gastroenterol 2003; 9: 1832-33.

 

[56] DRUG-NUTRIENT WORKSHOP: McFarland et al, A randomized, placebo-controlled trial of Saccharomyces boulardii in combination with standard antibiotics for Clostridium difficile disease. JAMA 1994; 271: 1913-18

 

[57] DRUG-NUTRIENT WORKSHOP: Surawicz et al, The search for a better treatment for recurrent Clostridium difficile disease: use of high dose vancomycin combined with Saccharomyces boulardii. Clin Infect Dis 2000; 31: 1012-17.

 

[58] DRUG-NUTRIENT WORKSHOP: Datla et al, Excretion studies of nitrofurantoin and nitrofurantoin with deglycyrrhizinated liquorice. Indian J Physiol Pharmacol. 1981; 25: 59-63.

 

[59] DRUG-NUTRIENT WORKSHOP: Gromotka et al, Improved treatment of chronic pyelonephritis with nitrofurantoin in combination with deglycyrrhizinated liquorice. Arzneimittelforschung. 1972 ;22 :627-79.

 

[60] DRUG-NUTRIENT WORKSHOP: Mori et al, Hyponatremia and/or hyperkalemia in patients treated with the standard dose of trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole. Intern Med 2003; 42: 665-69.

 

[61] Johnston BC, Supina AL, Ospina M, Vohra S. Probiotics for the prevention of pediatric antibiotic-associated diarrhea. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2007 Apr 18;(2):CD004827.

 

[62] Szajewska H, Ruszczyński M, Radzikowski A. Probiotics in the prevention of antibiotic-associated diarrhea in children: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.J Pediatr. 2006 Sep;149(3):367-372.

 

[63] McFarland LV. Meta-analysis of probiotics for the prevention of antibiotic associated diarrhea and the treatment of Clostridium difficile disease. Am J Gastroenterol. 2006;101:812-22.

 

[64] DRUG-NUTRIENT SOFTWARE: Joshi et al, Early human safety study of turmeric oil (Curcuma longa oil) administered orally in healthy volunteers. J Assoc Physicians India. 2003; 51: 1055-60.

 

[65] DRUG-NUTRIENT WORKSHOP: Chan et al, Effect of dietary alpha-linolenic acid and its ratio to linoleic acid on platelet and plasma fatty acids and thrombogenesis. Lipids. 1993; 28: 811-17.

 

[66] DRUG-NUTRIENT WORKSHOP: Bard et al, A therapeutic dosage (3 g/day) of borage oil supplementation has no effect on platelet aggregation in healthy volunteers. Fundam Clin Pharmacol. 1997; 11: 143-44.

 

 

[67] DRUG-NUTRIENT WORKSHOP: Boberg et al, Effects of dietary supplementation with n-6 and n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids on serum lipoproteins and platelet function in hypertriglyceridaemic patients.

Acta Med Scand. 1986; 220: 53-60.

 

[68] DRUG-NUTRIENT WORKSHOP: Kirk et al, Resveratrol decreases early signaling events in washed platelets but has little effect on platalet in whole blood. Blood Cells Mol Dis. 2000; 26:144-50.

 

[69] DRUG-NUTRIENT WORKSHOP: Liede et al, increased tendency towards gingival bleeding caused by joint effect of alpha-tocopherol supplementation and acetylsalicylic acid. Ann Med 1998; 30: 542-46.

 

[70] DRUG-NUTRIENT WORKSHOP: Steiner et al, Vitamin E plus aspirin compared with aspirin alone in patients with transient ischemic attacks. Am J Clin Nutr. 1995; 62(6 Suppl):1381S-1384S.

 

[71] Mueller BA, Talbert RL, Tegeler CH, Prihoda TJ, The bleeding time effects of a single dose of aspirin in subjects receiving omega-3 fatty acid dietary supplementation. J Clin Pharmacol. 1991;31:185-90.

 

[72] Harris WS, Silveira S, Dujovne CA. The combined effects of N-3 fatty acids and aspirin on hemostatic parameters in man. Thromb Res. 1990; 57:517-26.

 

[73] DRUG-NUTRIENT WORKSHOP: Eritsland et al, Long-term effects of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids on haemostatic variables and bleeding episodes in patients with coronary artery disease. Blood Coagul Fibrinolysis. 1995; 6: 17-22.

 

[74] DRUG-NUTRIENT WORKSHOP: Arruzazabala et al, Comparative study of policosanol, aspirin and the combination therapy policosanol-aspirin on platelet aggregation in healthy volunteers. Pharmacol Res. 1997; 36: 293-97.

 

[75] DRUG-NUTRIENT WORKSHOP: Spigset, Reduced effect of warfarin caused by ubidecarenone. Lancet 1994; 344: 1372-73.

 

 

[76] DRUG-NUTRIENT WORKSHOP: Lamdbo & Almdal, Interaction between warfarin and coenzyme Q10, Ugeskr Laeger. 1998; 160: 3226-27.

 

[77] DRUG-NUTRIENT WORKSHOP: Engelsen et al, Effect of Coenzyme Q10 and Ginkgo biloba on warfarin dosage in patients on long-term warfarin treatment. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled cross-over trial. Ugeskr Laeger. 2003; 165:1868-71.

 

[78] DRUG-NUTRIENT WORKSHOP: Corrigan, Coagulation problems relating to vitamin E. Am J Pediatr Hematol Oncol 1979; 1: 169-73.

 

[79] DRUG-NUTRIENT WORKSHOP: Kim & White, Effect of vitamin E on the anticoagulant response to warfarin. Am J Cardiol 1996; 77: 545-6.

 

[80] DRUG-NUTRIENT WORKSHOP: Buckley et al, Fish oil interaction with warfarin. Ann Pharmacother. 2004; 38: 50-2.

 

[81] DRUG-NUTRIENT WORKSHOP: Eritsland et al,  Long-term effects of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids on haemostatic variables and bleeding episodes in patients with coronary artery disease. Blood Coagul Fibrinolysis. 1995; 6: 17-22.

 

[82] DRUG-NUTRIENT WORKSHOP: Rosado, Thrombosis of a prosthetic aortic valve disclosing a hazardous interaction between warfarin and a commercial ginseng product. cardiology 2003; 99: 111.

 

[83] DRUG-NUTRIENT WORKSHOP: Janetzky & Morreale, Probable interaction between warfarin and ginseng. Am J Health Syst Pharm 1997; 54: 692-93.

 

[84] DRUG-NUTRIENT WORKSHOP: Jiang et al, Effect of St John's wort and ginseng on the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of warfarin in healthy subjects. Br J Clin Pharmacol. 2004; 57: 592-99

 

[85] DRUG-NUTRIENT WORKSHOP.:Prasad et al, Rhabdomyolysis due to red yeast rice (Monascus purpureus) in a renal transplant patient. Transplantation 2002; 27: 74: 1200-01.

 

[86] Heber D, Lembertas A, Lu QY, Bowerman S, Go VL. An analysis of nine proprietary Chinese red yeast rice dietary supplements: implications of variability in chemical profile and contents. J Altern Complement Med. 2001;7:133-9.

 

[87] DRUG-NUTRIENT WORKSHOP: Brown et al, Simvastatin and niacin, antioxidant vitamins, or the combination for the prevention of coronary disease. N Engl J Med. 2001; 345: 1583-92.

 

[88] DRUG-NUTRIENT WORKSHOP: Cheung et al, Antioxidant supplements block the response of HDL to simvastatin-niacin therapy in patients with coronary artery disease and low HDL. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2001; 21: 1320-26.

 

[89] DRUG-NUTRIENT WORKSHOP: Asztalos et al, Change in alpha1 HDL concentration predicts progression in coronary artery stenosis. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2003; 23: 847-52.

 

[90] DRUG-NUTRIENT WORKSHOP: Brown et al, Antioxidant vitamins and lipid therapy: end of a long romance? Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2002; 22: 1535-46

 

[91] DRUG-NUTRIENT WORKSHOP: Brown et al, Antioxidant vitamins and lipid therapy: end of a long romance? Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2002; 22: 1535-46.

 

 

[92] DRUG-NUTRIENT WORKSHOP: Collins et al, The MRC/BHF Heart Protection Study: preliminary results. Int J Clin Pract. 2002; 56 :53-6.

 

[93] Hargreaves IP, Duncan AJ, Heales SJ, Land JM The effect of HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors on coenzyme Q10: possible biochemical/clinical implications. Drug Saf. 2005;28:659-76

 

[94] DRUG-NUTRIENT WORKSHOP: De Pinieux et al, Lipid-lowering drugs and mitochondrial function: effects of HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors on serum ubiquinone and blood lactate/pyruvate ratio. Br J Pharmacol 1996; 42: 333-7.

 

[95] DRUG-NUTRIENT WORKSHOP: Bargossi et al, Exogenous CoQ10 supplementation prevents plasma ubiquinone reduction induced by HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors. Mol Aspects Med 1994; 15 (Suppl): S187-93.

 

[96] Caso G, Kelly P, McNurlan MA, Lawson WE, Effect of coenzyme q10 on myopathic symptoms in patients treated with statins. Am J Cardiol. 2007;99:1409-12

 

[97] DRUG-NUTRIENT WORKSHOP: Kaikkonen et al, Antioxidative efficacy of parallel and combined supplementation with coenzyme Q10 and d-alpha-tocopherol in mildly hypercholesterolemic subjects: a randomized placebo-controlled clinical study. Free Radic Res. 2000; 33: 329-40.

 

[98] DRUG-NUTRIENT WORKSHOP: Lass et al, Effects of coenzyme Q10 and alpha-tocopherol administration on their tissue levels in the mouse: elevation of mitochondrial alpha-tocopherol by coenzyme Q10. Free Radic Biol Med. 1999; 26: 1375-82.

 

[99]Tousoulis D, Antoniades C, Vassiliadou C, Toutouza M, Pitsavos C, Tentolouris C, Trikas A, Stefanadis C. Effects of combined administration of low dose atorvastatin and vitamin E on inflammatory markers and endothelial function in patients with heart failure. Eur J Heart Fail. 2005;7:1126-32.

 

[100] DRUG-NUTRIENT WORKSHOP: Peebles et al, Catalytic inhibition of human DNA topoisomerase IIalpha by hypericin, a naphthodianthrone from St. John's wort (Hypericum perforatum). Biochem Pharmacol. 2001; 62: 1059-70.

 

[101] Zhou S, Lim LY, Chowbay B. Herbal modulation of P-glycoprotein. Drug Metab Rev. 2004 Feb;36(1):57-104.

 

[102]Garrison MA, Hammond LA, Geyer CE, Schwartz G, Tolcher AW, Smetzer L, Figueroa JA, Ducharme M, Coyle J, Takimoto CH, De Jager RL, Rowinsky EK. A Phase I and pharmocokinetic study of exatecan mesylate administered as a protracted 21-day infusion in patients with advanced solid malignancies. Clin Cancer Res. 2003 Jul;9(7):2527-37

 

[103] Naganuma & Imura, Role of metallothionein in cancer chemotherapy. Gan To Kagaku Ryoho. 1994; 21: 301-06.

 

[104] Wiernik PH, Yeap B, Vogl SE, Kaplan BH, Comis RL, Falkson G, Davis TE, Fazzini E, Cheuvart B, Horton J. Hexamethylmelamine and low or moderate dose cisplatin with or without pyridoxine for treatment of advanced ovarian carcinoma: a study of the Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group. Cancer Invest. 1992;10(1):1-9.

 

[105] Shintani S, Murase H, Tsukagoshi H, Shiigai T., Glycyrrhizin (licorice)-induced hypokalemic myopathy. Report of 2 cases and review of the literature. Eur Neurol. 1992;32(1):44-51.

 

[106] DRUG-NUTRIENT WORKSHOP: Shaw et al,Traditional remedies and food supplements. A 5-year toxicological study (1991-1995). Drug Saf. 1997; 17: 342-56.

 

[107] DRUG-NUTRIENT WORKSHOP: Boulard et al, Symptomatic hypercalcemia after vitamin D-thiazide diuretics combination. Two cases in elderly women. Presse Med. 1994; 23: 96.

 

[108] DRUG-NUTRIENT WORKSHOP: Drinka & Nolton, Hazards of treating osteoporosis and hypertension concurrently with calcium, vitamin D, and distal diuretics. J Am Geriatr Soc. 1984; 32:405-07.

 

[109] DRUG-NUTRIENT WORKSHOP: Crowe et al, Hypercalcaemia following vitamin D and thiazide therapy in the elderly. Practitioner. 1984; 228 :312-3.

 

[110] DRUG-NUTRIENT WORKSHOP: Hakim et al, Severe hypercalcemia associated with hydrochlorothiazide and calcium carbonate therapy. Can Med Assoc J. 1979; 121:591-14.

 

[111] DRUG-NUTRIENT WORKSHOP: Henderson DG. Amiloride and magnesium. Severe interaction between amiloride and over-the-counter drugs containing magnesium.Ugeskr Laeger, 1987; 149: 92.

 

[112] DRUG-NUTRIENT WORKSHOP: Murdoch et al, A comparison of the potassium and magnesium-spearing properties of amiloride and spironolactone in diuretic-treated normal subjects. Br J Clin Pharmacol 1993; 35: 373-78.

 

[113] DRUG-NUTRIENT WORKSHOP: Houghton & Pears, Chronic potassium depletion due to purgation with cascara. Br Med J. 1958; 14: 1328-30.

 

[114] Bush TM, Rayburn KS, Holloway SW, Sanchez-Yamamoto DS, Allen BL, Lam T, So BK, Tran de H, Greyber ER, Kantor S, Roth LW. Adverse interactions between herbal and dietary substances and prescription medications: a clinical survey. Altern Ther Health Med. 2007;13:30-5.

 

[115] Yeh GY, Eisenberg DM, Kaptchuk TJ, Phillips RS., Systematic review of herbs and dietary supplements for glycemic control in diabetes. Diabetes Care. 2003;26:1277-94.

 

[116] Vuksan V, Sievenpiper JL. Herbal remedies in the management of diabetes: lessons learned from the study of ginseng. Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis. 2005;15:149-60.

 

[117] Shapiro K, Gong WC. Natural products used for diabetes. J Am Pharm Assoc (Wash). 2002;42:217-26.

 

[118] DRUG-NUTRIENT WORKSHOP: Scroggie et al, The effect of glucosamine-chondroitin supplementation on glycosylated hemoglobin levels in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: a placebo-controlled, double-blinded, randomized clinical trial. Arch Intern Med. 2003; 163: 1587-90.

 

[119] Farmer A, Montori V, Dinneen S, Clar C.. Fish oil in people with type 2 diabetes mellitus.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2001;(3):CD003205.

 

[120] Dahan A, Altman H. Food-drug interaction: grapefruit juice augments drug bioavailability--mechanism, extent and relevance. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2004 Jan;58(1):1-9.

 

[121] DRUG-NUTRIENT WORKSHOP: rasad et al, Rhabdomyolysis due to red yeast rice (Monascus purpureus) in a renal transplant patient. Transplantation 2002; 27: 74: 1200-01.

 

[122] DRUG-NUTRIENT WORKSHOP: de Lorgeril et al, The beneficial effect of dietary antioxidant sup[plementation on platelet aggregation and cyclosporine treatment in heart transplant patients. Transplantation 1994; 58: 193-95.

 

[123] DRUG-NUTRIENT WORKSHOP: Morgan et al, Supplementation with folic acid during methotrexate therapy for rheumatoid arthritis. A double-blind, placebo controlled trial. Ann Int Med 1994; 121: 833-41

 

 

[124] DRUG-NUTRIENT WORKSHOP: Duhra, Treatment of gastrointestinal symptoms associated with methotrexate therapy for psoriasis. J Am Acad Dermatol 1993; 28: 466-69.

 

[125] DRUG-NUTRIENT WORKSHOP: Morgan et al, Folic acid supplementation prevents deficient blood folate levels and hyperhomocysteinemia during longterm, low dose methotrexate therapy for rheumatoid arthritis: implications for cardiovascular disease prevention. J Rheumatol 1998; 25: 441-46.

 

[126] DRUG-NUTRIENT WORKSHOP: Bressolle et al, Folic acid alters methotrexate availability in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. J Rheumatol 2000; 27: 2110-14.

 

[127] DRUG-NUTRIENT WORKSHOP: Ishizaki et al, Pneumonitis during interferon and/or herbal drug therapy in patients with chronic active hepatitis. Eur Respir J 1996; 9: 2691-96.

 

[128] DRUG-NUTRIENT WORKSHOP: Shimizu, Antifibrogenic therapies in chronic HCV infection. Curr Drug Targets Infect Disord 2001; 1: 227-40.

 

[129] DRUG-NUTRIENT WORKSHOP: Takagi et al, Zinc supplementation enhances the response to interferon therapy in patients with chronic hepatitis C. J Viral Hepat. 2001; 8: 367-71.

 

[130] DRUG-NUTRIENT WORKSHOP: Nagamine et al, Preliminary study of combination therapy with interferon-alpha and zinc in chronic hepatitis C patients with genotype 1b. Biol Trace Elem Res. 2000; 75: 53-63.

 

[131] DRUG-NUTRIENT WORKSHOP: Svendsen et al, N-acetylcysteine modifies the acute effects of isorbide-5-mononitrate in angina pectoris patients evaluated by exercise testing. J Cardiovasc Pharmacol 1989; 13: 320-23.

 

[132] DRUG-NUTRIENT WORKSHOP: Pizzulli et al, N-acetylcysteine attenuates nitroglycerine tolerance in patients with angina pectoris and normal left ventricular function. Am J Cardiol 1997; 79: 28-33

 

 

[133] DRUG-NUTRIENT WORKSHOP: Dupuis et al, Tolerance to intravenous nitroglycerine in patients with congestive heart failure: role of increased intravascular volume, neurohumoral activation and lack of prevention with N-acetylcysteine.

 

[134] DRUG-NUTRIENT WORKSHOP: Bodemann et al. Nitrate tolerance and its management by N-acetylcysteine (studies of patients with severe chronic heart failure). Z Kardiol 1989; 78: 328-34.

 

[135] DRUG-NUTRIENT WORKSHOP: Hogan et al, Chronic administration of N-acetylcysteine fails to prevent nitrate tolerance in patioents with stable angina pectoris. Br J Clin Pharmacol 1990; 30: 573-77

 

[136] DRUG-NUTRIENT WORKSHOP: Ardissino et al, Effect of transdermal nitroglycerine or N-acetylcysteine, or both, in the long-term treatment of unstable angina pectoris. J Am Coll Cardiol 1997; 29: 941-47.

 

[137] DRUG-NUTRIENT WORKSHOP: Parker et al, The effect of supplemental L-arginine on tolerance development during continuous transdermal nitroglycerin therapy. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2002; 39: 1199-203.

 

[138] Gori T, Burstein JM, Ahmed S, Miner SE, Al-Hesayen A, Kelly S, Parker JD. Folic acid prevents nitroglycerin-induced nitric oxide synthase dysfunction and nitrate tolerance: a human in vivo study. Circulation. 2001 Sep 4;104(10):1119-23.

 

[139] DRUG-NUTRIENT WORKSHOP: McAlindon et al, Effect of allopurinol, sulphasalazine, and vitamin C on aspirin induced gastroduodenal injury in human volunteers. Gut. 1996; 38: 518-24.

 

[140] DRUG-NUTRIENT WORKSHOP: Dammann et al, Effects of buffered and plain acetylsalicylic acid formulations with and without ascorbic acid on gastric mucosa in healthy subjects.

Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 2004; 19: 367-74.

 

[141] DRUG-NUTRIENT WORKSHOP: Reese et al, Effect of deglycyrrhinized liquorice on gastric mucosal damage by aspirin. Scand J Gastroenterol 1979; 14: 605-07.

 

[142] DRUG-NUTRIENT WORKSHOP: Yeoh et al, Chili protects against aspirin-induced gastroduodenal injury in humans. Dig Dis Sci 1995; 40: 580-83.

 

[143] DRUG-NUTRIENT WORKSHOP: Laudanno et al, Prostaglandin E1 (misoprostol) and S-adenosylmethionine in the prevention of hemorrhagic gastritis induced by aspirin in the human. Endoscopic, histologic and histochemical study. Acta Gastroenterol Latinoam 1984; 14: 289-93

 

[144] DRUG-NUTRIENT WORKSHOP: Hond et al, Effect of glutamine on the intestinal permeability changes induced by indomethacin in humans. Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 1999; 13: 679-85.

 

[145] DRUG-NUTRIENT WORKSHOP: Playford et al, Co-administration of the health food supplement, bovine colostrum, reduces the acute non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug-induced increase in intestinal permeability. Clin Sci (Lond). 2001; 100: 627-33.

 

[146] DRUG-NUTRIENT WORKSHOP: Loeschke et al, n-3 Fatty acids retard early relapse in ulcerative colitis in remission. Dig Dis Sci 1996; 41: 2087-94.

 

[147] DRUG-NUTRIENT WORKSHOP: Aslan & Triadafilopoulos, Fish oil fatty acid supplementation in active ulcerative colitis: a double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study.

Am J Gastroenterol. 1992; 87: 432-37.

 

[148] DRUG-NUTRIENT WORKSHOP: Su et al, Omega-3 fatty acids in major depressive disorder. A preliminary double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Eur Neuropsychopharmacol. 2003; 13: 267-71.

 

[149] DRUG-NUTRIENT WORKSHOP: Singer et al, Fish oil amplifies the effect of propranolol in mild essential hypertension. Hypertension. 1990; 16:682-91.

 

[150] DRUG-NUTRIENT WORKSHOP: Lungershausen et al, Reduction of blood pressure and plasma triglycerides by omega-3 fatty acids in treated hypertensives. J Hypertens. 1994; 12: 1041-5

 

[151] Mickleborough TD, Lindley MR, Ionescu AA, Fly AD., Protective effect of fish oil supplementation on exercise-induced bronchoconstriction in asthma. Chest. 2006; 129:39-49.

 

[152] DRUG-NUTRIENT WORKSHOP: Badalamenti, Renal effects of dietary supplementation with fish oil in cyclosporine-treated liver transplant recipients. Hepatology 1995; 22: 1695-71

 

[153] DRUG-NUTRIENT WORKSHOP: Homan van der Heide et al, The effects of dietary supplementation with fish oil on renal function in cyclosporine-treated renal transplant recipients. Transplantation 1990; 49: 523-27.

 

[154] DRUG-NUTRIENT WORKSHOP: Holm et al, Omega-3 fatty acids improve blood pressure control and preserve renal function in hypertensive heart transplant patients. Eur Heart J 2001; 22: 428-36.

 

[155] DRUG-NUTRIENT WORKSHOP: Stoll et al, Omega 3 fatty acids in bipolar disorder: a preliminary double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 1999; 56: 407-12.

 

[156] DRUG-NUTRIENT WORKSHOP: Emsley et al, Clinical potential of omega-3 fatty acids in the treatment of schizophrenia. CNS Drugs. 2003; 17: 1081-9.

 

[157] DRUG-NUTRIENT WORKSHOP: Lau et al, Effects of fish oil supplementation on non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug requirement in patients with mild rheumatoid arthritis--a double-blind placebo controlled study. Br J Rheumatol. 1993; 32: 982-89.

 

[158] DRUG-NUTRIENT WORKSHOP: Nordoy et al, Effects of atorvastatin and omega-3 fatty acids on LDL subfractions and postprandial hyperlipemia in patients with combined hyperlipemia.

Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis. 200; 11: 7-16.

 

[159] DRUG-NUTRIENT WORKSHOP: Nordoy et al, Atorvastatin and omega-3 fatty acids protect against activation of the coagulation system in patients with combined hyperlipemia. J Thromb Haemost. 2003; 1: 690-07.

 

[160] DRUG-NUTRIENT WORKSHOP: Nordoy et al, Effect of omega-3 fatty acids and simvastatin on hemostatic risk factors and postprandial hyperlipemia in patients with combined hyperlipemia. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2000; 20: 259-65.

 

[161] Madabushi R, Frank B, Drewelow B, Derendorf H, Butterweck V. Hyperforin in St. John's wort drug interactions. Eur J Clin Pharmacol. 2006 Mar;62(3):225-33.

 

[162] Pal D, Mitra AK., MDR- and CYP3A4-mediated drug-herbal interactions. Life Sci. 2006 Mar 27;78(18):2131-45.

 

[163] DRUG-NUTRIENT WORKSHOP: Johne et al, Decreased plasma levels of amitriptyline and its metabolites on comedication with an extract from St. John's wort ( Hypericum perforatum ). J Clin Psychopharmacol. 2002; 22: 46-54.

 

[164] DRUG-NUTRIENT WORKSHOP: Ernst, St. John's Wort supplements endanger the success of organ transplantation. Arch Surgery 2002; 137: 316-19.

 

[165] Zhou S, Chan E, Pan SQ, Huang M, Lee EJ. Pharmacokinetic interactions of drugs with St. John’s wort.

J Psychopharmacol 2004; 18: 262-76.

 

[166] DRUG-NUTRIENT WORKSHOP: Mueller et al, Effect of St. John's Wort dose and preparations on the pharmacokinetics of digoxin. Clin Pharmacol ther 2004;  75: 546-57.

 

[167] DRUG-NUTRIENT WORKSHOP: Wang et al, Effect of St John's wort on the pharmacokinetics of fexofenadine. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 2002; 71: 414-20.

 

[168] DRUG-NUTRIENT WORKSHOP: Frye et al, Effect of St John's wort on imatinib mesylate pharmacokinetics. Clin Pharmacol Ther.2004; 76: 323-329.

 

[169] DRUG-NUTRIENT WORKSHOP: Piscitelli  et al, Indinavir concentrations and St John's wort. Lancet. 2000; 355: 5474-8.

 

[170] DRUG-NUTRIENT WORKSHOP: Mathijssen et al,  Effects of St. John's wort on irinotecan metabolism. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2002; 94:1247-49.

 

[171] DRUG-NUTRIENT WORKSHOP: Wang et al, The effects of St John's wort (Hypericum perforatum) on human cytochrome P450 activity. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 2001; 70: 317-26.

 

[172] DRUG-NUTRIENT WORKSHOP: de Maat, The effects of St John's wort (Hypericum perforatum) on human cytochrome P450 activity. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 2001; 70: 317-26.

 

[173] DRUG-NUTRIENT WORKSHOP: Wang et al, St John's wort induces both cytochrome P450 3A4-catalyzed sulfoxidation and 2C19-dependent hydroxylation of omeprazole. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 2004; 75: 191-97.

 

[174] Pfrunder et al,  Interaction of St. John's Wort with low-dose oral contraceptive therapy: a randomized controlled trial. Br j Clin Pharmacol 2003; 56: 683-90

 

[175] DRUG-NUTRIENT WORKSHOP: Sugimoto et al, Different effects of St John's wort on the pharmacokinetics of simvastatin and pravastatin.Clin Pharmacol Ther. 200; 70: 518-24.

 

[176] DRUG-NUTRIENT WORKSHOP: Mai et al, Impact of St John's wort treatment on the pharmacokinetics of tacrolimus and mycophenolic acid in renal transplant patients. Nephrol Dial Transplant.2003; 18: 19-22.

 

[177] DRUG-NUTRIENT WORKSHOP: Tannergren et al, St John's wort decreases the bioavailability of R- and S-verapamil through induction of the first-pass metabolism. Clin Pharmacol Ther.2004; 75: 298-309.

 

[178] DRUG-NUTRIENT WORKSHOP: Izzo. drug interactions with St. John's wort {Hypericum perforatum): a review of the clinical evidence. Int J Clin Pharmacol Ther 2004; 42: 139-48.

 

[179] DRUG-NUTRIENT WORKSHOP: Dong et al, Abnormal function of platelets and role of angelica sinensis in patients with ulcerative colitis. World J Gastroenterol. 2004; 10: 606-09.

 

[180] DRUG-NUTRIENT WORKSHOP: Mori TA, Beilin LJ, Burke V, Morris J, Ritchie J., Interactions between dietary fat, fish, and fish oils and their effects on platelet function in men at risk of cardiovascular disease. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 1997;17:279-86.

 

[181] DRUG-NUTRIENT WORKSHOP: Ali & Thomson, Consumption of a garlic clove a day could be beneficial in preventing thrombosis. Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids. 1995; 53: 211-12.

 

[182] DRUG-NUTRIENT WORKSHOP: Srivastava, Effect of onion and ginger consumption on platelet thromboxane production in humans. Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids. 1989; 35: 183-85.

 

[183] DRUG-NUTRIENT WORKSHOP: Kudolo et al, Effect of the ingestion of Ginkgo biloba extract on platelet aggregation and urinary prostanoid excretion in healthy and Type 2 diabetic subjects. Thromb Res. 2002; 108: 151-60.

 

[184] DRUG-NUTRIENT WORKSHOP: Bal Dit Sollier et al, No alteration in platelet function or coagulation induced by EGb761 in a controlled study. Clin Lab Haematol. 2003; 25: 251-53.

 

[185] DRUG-NUTRIENT WORKSHOP: Mendez-Silva et al, Antithrombotic effect of Glycyrrhizin, a plant-derived thrombin inhibitor. Thromb Res. 2003; 112(: 93-8.

 

[186] Carbajal D, Arruzazabala ML, Valdés S, Más R. Effect of policosanol on platelet aggregation and serum levels of arachidonic acid metabolites in healthy volunteers. Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids. 1998; 58:61-4.

 

[187] DRUG-NUTRIENT WORKSHOP: Putter et al, Inhibition of smoking-induced platelet aggregation by aspirin and pycnogenol. Thromb Res. 1999; 95: 155-61.

 

[188] DRUG-NUTRIENT WORKSHOP: Tau & Feng, Experimental and clinical studies on inhibitory effect of ganoderma lucidum on platelet aggregation. J Tongji Med Univ. 1990; 10: 240-43.

 

[189] DRUG-NUTRIENT WORKSHOP: Wang et al, Effect of resveratrol on platelet aggregation in vivo and in vitro. Chin Med J (Engl). 2002; 115: 378-80.

 

[190] DRUG-NUTRIENT WORKSHOP: Pace-Asciak, Wines and grape juices as modulators of platelet aggregation in healthy human subjects. Clin Chim Acta. 1996;246: 163-82.

 

[191] DRUG-NUTRIENT WORKSHOP: Cheema et al, Intraoperative haemorrhage associated with the use of extract of Saw Palmetto herb: a case report and review of literature. J Intern Med.2001; 250: 167-69.

 

[192] DRUG-NUTRIENT WORKSHOP: Liu et al, Mixed tocopherols inhibit platelet aggregation in humans: potential mechanisms. Am J Clin Nutr. 2003; 77: 700-06.

 

[193] DRUG-NUTRIENT WORKSHOP: Querishi et al, Lowering of serum cholesterol in hypercholesterolemic humans by tocotrienols (palmvitee). Am J Clin Nutr. 1991; 53 (4 Suppl): 1021S-1026S.

 

[194] DRUG-NUTRIENT WORKSHOP: Mensink et al, A vitamin E concentrate rich in tocotrienols had no effect on serum lipids, lipoproteins, or platelet function in men with mildly elevated serum lipid concentrations. Am J Clin Nutr. 1999; 69: 213-19.

 

[195] DRUG-NUTRIENT WORKSHOP: Steiner, Vitamin E, a modifier of platelet function: rationale and use in cardiovascular and cerebrovascular disease. Nutr Rev 1999; 57:306-099.

 

[196] DRUG-NUTRIENT WORKSHOP: Lambert & Cormier, Potential interaction between warfarin and boldo-fenugreek. Pharmacotherapy 2001; 21: 509-512.

 

[197] DRUG-NUTRIENT WORKSHOP: Ohkawa et al, Warfarin therapy and chlorella. Rinsho Shinkeigaku. 1995; 35: 806-07.

 

[198] DRUG-NUTRIENT WORKSHOP: Chan, Interaction between warfarin and danshen (Salvia miltiorrhiza). Ann Pharmacother 2001; 35: 501-04

 

[199] DRUG-NUTRIENT WORKSHOP: Shaw et al, Traditional remedies and food supplements: a 5-year toxicological study (1991-1995). Drug Saf 1997; 17: 342-56.

 

[200] DRUG-NUTRIENT WORKSHOP: Chan, Interaction between warfarin and danshen (Salvia miltiorrhiza). Ann Pharmacother 2001; 35: 501-04

 

[201] DRUG-NUTRIENT WORKSHOP: Sunter, Warfarin and garlic, Pharmacol J 1991; 246: 722.

 

[202] Vaes LP, Chyka PA., Interactions of warfarin with garlic, ginger, ginkgo, or ginseng: nature of the evidence. Ann Pharmacother. 2000; 34: 1478-82.

 

[203] Lam AY, Elmer GW, Mohutsky MA. Possible interaction between warfarin and Lycium barbarum L.
Ann Pharmacother. 2001;35:1199-201.

 

[204] Jiang X, Blair EY, McLachlan AJ. Investigation of the effects of herbal medicines on warfarin response in healthy subjects: a population pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic modeling approach.
J Clin Pharmacol. 2006;46:1370-8.

 

[205] DRUG-NUTRIENT WORKSHOP: Ahmad. Lovastatin-warfarin interaction. Arch Int Med 1990; 150: 2407. Hoffman, The interaction of lovastatin and warfarin. Conn Med 1992; 56: 107.

 

[206] DRUG-NUTRIENT WORKSHOP: Yue et al, Safety of St. John's wort (Hypericum perforatum). Lancet 2000: 355: 576-77. [2] Izzo. drug interactions with St. John's wort {Hypericum perforatum): a review of the clinical evidence. Int J Clin Pharmacol Ther 2004; 42: 139-48.

 

[207] DRUG-NUTRIENT WORKSHOP: Hitzenberger et al, Influence of vinpocetine on warfarin-induced inhibition of coagulation. Int J Clin Pharmacol Ther Toxicol. 1990; 28: 323-8.

[208] DRUG-NUTRIENT WORKSHOP: Okuma et al, Protective effect of coenzyme Q10 in cardiotoxicity induced by adriamycin. Gan To Kagaku Ryoho. 1984; 11: 502-08.

 

[209] DRUG-NUTRIENT WORKSHOP: Anderson et al, Oral glutamine reduces the duration and severity of stomatitis after cytotoxic cancer chemotherapy. Cancer. 1998; 83: 1433-39.

 

[210] Savarese DM, Savy G, Vahdat L, Wischmeyer PE, Corey B. Prevention of chemotherapy and radiation toxicity with glutamine. Cancer Treat Rev. 2003;29:501-13.

 

[211]DRUG-NUTRIENT WORKSHOP: Wilcox et al, Effects of magnesium supplementation in testicular cancer patients receiving cis-platin: a randomised trial. Br J Cancer. 1986; 54:19-23.

 

[212] DRUG-NUTRIENT WORKSHOP: Lissoni et al, A randomized study of chemotherapy with cisplatin plus etoposide versus chemoendocrine therapy with cisplatin, etoposide and the pineal hormone melatonin as a first-line treatment of advanced non-small cell lung cancer patients in a poor clinical state. J Pineal Res 1997; 23: 15-19.

 

[213] DRUG-NUTRIENT WORKSHOP: Lissoni et al, Prevention of cytokine-induced hypotension in cancer patients by the pineal hormone melatonin. Support Care Cancer. 1996; 4: 313-6.

 

[214] DRUG-NUTRIENT WORKSHOP: Loehrer, The history of ifosfamide. Semin Oncol 1992; 19 (Suppl 12) 2-6.

 

[215] DRUG-NUTRIENT WORKSHOP: Hu et al, The protective role of selenium on the toxicity of cisplatin-contained chemotherapy regimen in cancer patients. Biol Trace Elem res 1997; 56: 331-41

 

[216] DRUG-NUTRIENT WORKSHOP: Fabian et al, Pyridoxine therapy for palmar-plantar erythrodysesthesia associated with continuous 5-fluorouracil infusion. Invest New Drugs. 1990; 8: 57-63.

 

[217] DRUG-NUTRIENT WORKSHOP: Pace et al, Neuroprotective effect of vitamin E supplementation in patients treated with cisplatin chemotherapy. J Clin Oncol. 2003; 21: 927-31.

 

[218]DRUG-NUTRIENT WORKSHOP: Folkers et al, Inhibition by adriamycin of the mitochondrial synthesis of coenzyme Q10 and implication for the cardiotoxicity of adriamycin in cancer patients. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 1977; 77: 1536-42.

 

[219] DRUG-NUTRIENT WORKSHOP: Lajer et al, Severe intracellular magnesium and potassium depletion in patients after treatment with cisplatin. Br J Cancer 2003; 89: 1633-37.

 

[220] Ghannam N, Kingston M, Al-Meshaal IA, Tariq M, Parman NS, Woodhouse N. The antidiabetic activity of aloes: preliminary clinical and experimental observations.
Horm Res. 1986;24(4):288-94.

 

[221] DRUG-NUTRIENT WORKSHOP: Bunyapraphatsara et al, Antidiabetic activity of Aloe vera L. juice II. Clinical trials in diabetes mellitus patients in combination with glibenclamide. Phytomed 1996; 3: 245-48.

 

[222] DRUG-NUTRIENT WORKSHOP: Basch et al, Bitter melon (Momordica charantia): a review of efficacy and safety. Am J Health Syst Pharm. 2003; 60: 356-59.

 

[223] DRUG-NUTRIENT WORKSHOP: Negrisanu et al, Effects of 3-month treatment with the antioxidant alpha-lipoic acid in diabetic peripheral neuropathy. Rom J Intern Med. 1999; 37: 297-306.

 

[224] DRUG-NUTRIENT WORKSHOP: Basch et al, Bitter melon (Momordica charantia): a review of efficacy and safety. Am J Health Syst Pharm. 2003; 60: 356-59.

 

[225] DRUG-NUTRIENT WORKSJOP: Anderson, Chromium, glucose intolerance and diabetes. J Am Coll Nutr. 1998; 17: 548-55.

 

[226] DRUG-NUTRIENT WORKSHOP: Althuis et al, Glucose and insulin responses to dietary chromium supplements: a meta-analysis. Am J Clin Nutr. 2002; 76: 148-55.

 

 

[227] DRUG-NUTRIENT WORKSHOP: Ryan et al, Chromium as adjunctive treatment for type 2 diabetes. Ann Pharmacother. 2003; 37: 876-85.

 

[228] Kleefstra N, Houweling ST, Bakker SJ, Verhoeven S, Gans RO, Meyboom-de Jong B, Bilo HJ. Chromium treatment has no effect in patients with type 2 diabetes in a Western population: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Diabetes Care. 2007;30:1092-6.

 

 

 

[229] Kleefstra N, Houweling ST, Jansman FG, Groenier KH, Gans RO, Meyboom-de Jong B, Bakker SJ, Bilo HJ. Chromium treatment has no effect in patients with poorly controlled, insulin-treated type 2 diabetes in an obese Western population: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Diabetes Care. 2006;29:521-5.

 

[230] DRUG-NUTRIENT WORKSHOP: Khan et al, Treatment of diabetes mellitus with Coccinia indica. Br Med J. 1980; 280: 1044.

 

[231] DRUG-NUTRIENT WORKSHOP: Sharma et al, Use of fenugreek seed powder in the management of non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus. Nutr Res 1996; 16: 1131-39.

 

[232] DRUG-NUTRIENT WORKSHOP: Vuksan et al, American ginseng (Panax quinquefolius L) reduces postprandial glycemia in nondiabetic subjects and subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Arch Intern Med. 2000; 160: 1009-13.

 

[233] DRUG-NUTRIENT WORKSHOP: Vuksan et al, Similar postprandial glycemic reductions with escalation of dose and administration time of American ginseng in type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Care. 2000; 23: 1221-26.

 

[234] DRUG-NUTRIENT WORKSHOP: Sotaniemi et al, Ginseng therapy in non-insulin-dependent diabetic patients. Diabetes Care. 1995; 18: 1373-75.

 

[235] DRUG-NUTRIENT WORKSHOP: Shanmugasundaram et al, Use of Gymnema sylvestre leaf extract in the control of blood glucose in insulin-dependent diabertes mellitus. J Ethnopharmacol 1990; 30: 281-94.

 

[236] DRUG-NUTRIENT WORKSHOP: Baskaran et al, Antidiabetic effect of a leaf extract from Gymnema sylvestre in non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus patients. J Ethnopharmacol 1990; 30: 295-300.

 

[237] Frati-Munari AC, Gordillo BE, Altamirano P, Ariza CR. Hypoglycemic effect of Opuntia streptacantha Lemaire in NIDDM. Diabetes Care. 1988;11:63-6.

 

[238] Frati-Munari AC, Del Valle-Martínez LM, Ariza-Andraca CR, Islas-Andrade S, Chávez-Negrete A., [Hypoglycemic action of different doses of nopal (Opuntia streptacantha Lemaire) in patients with type II diabetes mellitus] Arch Invest Med (Mex). 1989;20:197-201.

 

[239] Frati-Munari AC, de León C, Ariza-Andraca R, Bañales-Ham MB, López-Ledesma R, Lozoya X. [Effect of a dehydrated extract of nopal (Opuntia ficus indica Mill.) on blood glucose] Arch Invest Med (Mex). 1989;20:211-6.

 

[240] Frati Munari AC, Vera Lastra O, Ariza Andraca CR. [Evaluation of nopal capsules in diabetes mellitus]
Gac Med Mex. 1992;128:431-6.

 

[241] DRUG-NUTRIENT WORKSHOP: Liu et al, Antidiabetic effect of Pycnogenol French maritime pine bark extract in patients with diabetes type II. Life Sci. 2004; 75: 2505-13

 

[242] DRUG-NUTRIENT WORKSHOP: Schonlau &  Rohdewald, Pycnogenol for diabetic retinopathy. A review. Int Ophthalmol. 2001; 24: 161-71

 

[243] DRUG-NUTRIENT WORKSHOP: Shani et al, Insulin-potentiating effect of salt bush (Atriplex halimus) ashes. Isr J Med Sci. 1972 ;8: 7575-8.

 

[244] DRUG-NUTRIENT WORKSHOP: Goldfine etal, Metabolic effects of vanadyl sulfate in humans with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus: in vivo and in vitro studies. Metabolism. 2000; 49: 400-10.

 

[245] DRUG-NUTRIENT WORKSHOP: Cusi et al, Vanadyl sulfate improves hepatic and muscle insulin sensitivity in type 2 diabetes. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2001; 86: 1410-17.

 

[246] DRUG-NUTRIENT WORKSHOP: Cohen et al, Oral vanadyl sulfate improves hepatic and peripheral insulin sensitivity in patients with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. J Clin Invest. 1995; 95: 2501-09.

 

[247] DRUG-NUTRIENT WORKSHOP: Boden et al, Effects of vanadyl sulfate on carbohydrate and lipid metabolism in patients with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. Metabolism. 1996; 45: 1130-35.

 

[248] DRUG-NUTRIENT WORKSHOP: Goldfine et al, In vivo and in vitro studies of vanadate in human and rodent diabetes mellitus. Mol Cell Biochem. 1995; 153: 217-31.

 

[249] DRUG-NUTRIENT WORKSHOP: [No authors listed], Flexible dose open trial of Vijayasar in cases of newly-diagnosed non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR), Collaborating Centres, New Delhi. Indian J Med Res. 1998; 108:24-9.

 

[250] DRUG-NUTRIENT WORKSHOP: Kumar et al, Improvement in glucose tolerance and beta-cell function in a patient with vitamin D deficiency during treatment with vitamin D. Postgrad Med J. 1994; 70:440-3

 

[251] DRUG-NUTRIENT WORKSHOP: Paolissa et al, Daily vitamin E supplements improve metabolic control but not insulin secretion in elderly type II diabetic patients. Diabetes Care 1993; 16: 1433-37.

 

 

[252] DRUG-NUTRIENT WORKSHOP: Paolissa et al, Daily vitamin E supplements improve metabolic control but not insulin secretion in elderly type II diabetic patients. Diabetes Care 1993; 16: 1433-37.

 

[253] DRUG-NUTRIENT WORKSHOP: Skrha et al, Insulin action and fibrinolysis influenced by vitamin E in obese Type 2 diabetes mellitus. Diabetes Res Clin Pract. 1999 ;44: 27-33.

This article is provided for general educational purposes only and is not intended to constitute (i) medical advice or counseling, (ii) the practice of medicine or the provision of health care diagnosis or treatment, (iii) the creation of a physician--patient relationship, or (iv) an endorsement, recommendation or sponsorship of any third party product or service by the sender or the sender's affiliates, agents, employees, or service providers. If you have or suspect that you have a medical problem, contact your doctor promptly.

 

 
 
Terms of Use Agreement | ©2006 - 2008 Renaissance Workshops Ltd.